How to Sharpen Garden Tools

Garden hoe and sharpening file

Learning to sharpen your garden tools may be one of the most important things you can do to make your work in the garden easier and more enjoyable.

Why?  Because a sharp tool cuts more easily and accurately than a dull one!

Sure, you can get away with using a dull tool (many people do), but a sharp tool will help you get done faster and enjoy your work more along the way.

In this article, I’ll show you how to sharpen garden tools such as weeding hoes and spades with a simple sharpening file.

No grinders, water stones, or jigs are necessary: just you, a tool and a file.

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Intimidated?  You’re not alone.

One last thought before we begin:  If you’ve ever been intimidated by the thought of sharpening a tool, rest assured, you’re not alone.  I used to be and know many gardeners who are, too.

If you’ve never done it, it’s natural to be hesitant, especially if you have a nice tool that you don’t want to mess up.  Luckily, you’re not likely to do any lasting damage when sharpening with a file, and what’s more you don’t need to create a razor sharp edge to have success.  A decent edge will do.

That said, learning how to sharpen simple garden tools is a great starting place and can prepare you to sharpen more difficult tools such as pruners, axes and knives.

Let’s begin!

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1. Select the Proper File

How to Sharpen Garden Tools - 3 Files
The file on the left has a handle that can be transferred to a new file once the file becomes dull. The center file has a built in handle. The file on the right has no handle and needs one to be used safely and effectively.
How to Sharpen Garden Tools - 2 files detail
Single cut file on the left, double cut on the right. Unless you're dealing with damaged or very dull edges, we suggest a single cut file.

Sharpening files come in a variety of grades and lengths.  Commonly available grades include bastard (coarse), second cut (medium) and smooth cut (fine).  You may also be presented with both single and double cut files.

Single cut files have cutting teeth that run in only one direction.  Double cut files have teeth that cross each other creating a diamond pattern.

Double cut files remove metal very quickly and leave a rough cutting edge; they are best suited to repairing damaged or very dull blades.  In most circumstances a single cut file will be your best choice.

For  sharpening garden tools, I suggest using a single cut file that is 8-12 inches in length, with either bastard or second cut coarseness.

A bastard file will cut faster, but I have come to like the smoother edge left by a second cut file.

If you want to repair damaged tools by hand, add a double cut file to your kit.  It will save you much time and effort.  

We offer some nice sharpening files here, but they are also readily available in hardware stores.  Purchase a handle if the file does not already have one.

2. Clean Your Tool

How to sharpen garden tools - alcohol
Rubbing alcohol is good for removing oil sap before sharpening.
How to sharpen garden tools - rust removing
Light rust can be filed off, but heavy rust should be removed. Wire wheel, rubber "rust eraser," sand paper or white vinegar can be used.

If your tool head is dirty or greasy, give it a rinse before sharpening.  Dirt, oil and sap will just clog your file and make more work.

Rubbing alcohol will remove any grease or sap, and be sure to wipe the head dry if you used water for cleaning. 

Light surface rust will file off easily, but you may want to remove any thick rust with a wire brush or sandpaper to save your file.

A tool with heavy rust can be soaked in white vinegar overnight.  The rust will loosen and wipe off easily with a rag.

3. Secure Your Tool

How to sharpen garden tools - hoe in vise
Though not required, a bench vise is ideal for securing the tool to be sharpened.
How to sharpen garden tools - hoe clamped to bench
Another option: clamp your tools to a sturdy bench.

If possible, it is helpful to secure the tool-to-be-sharpened in some way.   A bench vise works very well, but many tools can also be secured to a stable surface with clamps.

A good working height for the tool is about even with the elbow when your arm is bent.

With your tool held in place, you’ll have both hands free to guide the file.  This will afford you more strength, control and precision. 

If you can’t secure the tool in any way (perhaps while out in the garden), you’ll need to keep one hand on the tool and the other on the file. While less than ideal, it is certainly doable. 

For long handled tools, place the end of the tool handle on the ground (tool head up) and using strong, even pressure, push down on the head while sharpening.

Short handled tools can be held under one knee with the tool head resting over your opposite thigh. 

The idea is to minimize unwanted movement of the tool as much as possible.

4. The Sharpening Stroke

How to sharpen garden tools - Stroke 1
Place the tip of the file on the left side of the tool head. Try to match the angle of the file with the bevel on the blade, usually around 30 degrees.
How to sharpen garden tools - stroke 2
Push the file forward and to the right, so that you end up on the opposite side of the blade with the file resting nearer to your hand. Your opposite hand remains on the tip of the file and helps maintain downward pressure as you file.

Now for the fun part.

Find a good, solid stance:  knees slightly bent, feet somewhere between hip and shoulder width apart. You might try putting your left foot slightly more forward than your right (opposite if you’re a lefty). The more solid and balanced you are, the better your results will be.

Rest the tip of the file on the left side of the cutting edge of the tool. Take a look at the bevel angle of the blade and tilt your file up or down to match the angle. It doesn’t have to be exact and can be fine-tuned later.

Now, with slight downward pressure, push the file both up and across the cutting edge to the right (if you’re a lefty you’ll be pushing across to the left). Your second hand should rest on the top end of the file, where it helps maintain your angle and keep downward pressure even.

Try to keep your wrists and elbows fixed and move from the shoulders and hips. This will give a more consistent result.

Push forward and across until you get near the bottom (or heel) of the file. If you’re a beginner, it’s not a bad idea to wear a glove on your dominant hand to protect against an unintentional slip. Remember, you’re pushing toward a cutting edge!

If the blade you’re sharpening is short, one stroke may be all you need to reach the right side of the cutting edge. Most tools, however will require that you make multiple, overlapping strokes to sharpen the full length of the blade.

After your first stroke, lift the file and either return it to its starting position or place it slightly to the left of where you finished the stroke

Do not file in a back and forth motion, this will dull your file prematurely. File only in one direction, in this case the push stroke.

Continue this diagonal motion until you reach the other side of the blade.

You may need to make a 2nd pass before you really start to see and feel results. When the file is cutting, you will feel resistance, that’s a good sign. You don’t need to push down hard, just enough to get the file to bite. After one or two passes, you should be able to see the shiny new metal that you are exposing.

5. Assess Your Angle

How to sharpen garden tools - Cutting edge detail 1
After the first few passes of the file, you’re likely to see something like this: shiny new metal that indicates where you’ve been filing. The black line near the cutting edge (at the bottom) has not been touched yet. To correct this you either need to keep sharpening at the same angle, this will widen the bevel and eventually hit that black line. Or you can drop your hand to steepen the angle. In this case, because I like the current angle, I will continue filing until I reach the untouched edge.
How to sharpen garden tools - bevel angle
A bevel angle between 30-40 degrees is ideal. Note that you can now see shiny, new metal all the way down to the cutting edge.

Now is the time to assess your angle.  Set aside your file and look at the blade with some good back light.  A bevel gauge (shown above) is nice but by no means necessary.

Most of the time, the angle that arrives from the manufacturer is just fine, and all you need to do is follow it.  In this case, the shiny new metal should match the original bevel. 

If, for example, you can see new metal at the top of the bevel but not down by the cutting edge, you’ll need to either drop your hand slightly when filing or simply continue sharpening at that angle until you reach the actual cutting edge.

If the opposite is true, and you’re seeing new metal at the cutting edge but not at the top of the bevel, you’ll need to raise your hand slightly when filing.

A bevel angle of around 35 degrees is a good all-around angle for soil-working tools.  It’s fairly thick, but that makes the edge stronger and less likely to chip or roll.

Once you’ve determined your angle, keep filing until you can see shiny new metal all the way down to the cutting edge.

6. When are You Done?

How to sharpen garden tools - Feeling for a burr
A burr, or wire edge, is a small strip of metal that the file rolls over onto the opposite side as you file along the cutting edge. It is your indication that you've filed completely. To feel for it, slowly rub your finger under the cutting edge making a sort of "come here" motion.
How to sharpen garden tools - remove the burr
To remove the burr, place your file under the cutting edge and lightly draw it back toward you.

Continue filing until you can feel a burr on the backside of the cutting edge.  A burr, also called a wire edge, is a small fold of metal that forms on the opposite side of the edge you are filing.  You can feel it by running your fingers in a sort-of “come here” motion on the backside of the blade.

It lets you know that you’ve sharpened all the way to the cutting edge.

To remove the burr, place the file on the opposite side of the blade, flat against the tool, and pull back towards yourself with light pressure.  This will “wipe” away the burr, and leave a smooth cutting edge.  If you can still feel a slight burr, don’t worry, it’s not critical on a soil working tool to remove it completely.

Congratulations!  Your tool is now sharp and ready for action.

How to sharpen garden tools - Finished Bevel
Your finished edge will look something like this.


I hope this article on garden tool sharpening will help you become a more competent and resilient gardener.

Compared to a dull tool, a sharp one is easier to use, more accurate and often safer (dull tools can be unpredictable).  As Abe Lincoln supposedly said, “Give me 6 hours to cut down a tree, and I’ll spend the first 4 sharpening the axe.”

Once you get a taste of the pleasure of using a sharp, well maintained tool, I don’t think you’ll go back to using a dull one. 🙂

Purchase a good sharpening file, here.

Happy gardening!

Items Used in this Guide

Bring this guide with you.

Download and print this full-color PDF so you can practice sharpening along with the guide.

  • 9 Page, full-color PDF with photos.
100% Privacy | Unsubscribe Anytime